to amend the Tokyo Code,
submitted to the XVI International Botanical Congress, St Louis 1999
as published in Taxon, vol. 45-47 (1996-1998)
(01 Green & al. in Taxon 45: 141) Add a paragraph and an example at the end of Art. 53; deleting part of Art. 60 Ex. 19, after the semicolon:
"53.7. When the final epithets of heterotypic names of species in the same genus, or of infraspecific taxa in the same species, are substantives in the genitive case and based on the same personal name, they are to be treated as homonyms if they differ only in the genitive termination of these epithets.
"Ex. 17. Podlech & Kirchhoff (in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 11: 432. 1974) named Astragalus "matthewsii" after a woman, Victoria A. Matthews, and this is to be corrected to A. matthewsiae Podlech & Kirchhoff. The latter is confusingly similar to, and to be treated as a later homonym of, A. matthewsii S. Watson (in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 18: 192. 1883). The correct name is A. victoriae Podlech & Kirchhoff (in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 12: 375. 1976)."
(02 Green & al. in Taxon 45: 142) Modify proposal (01) by adding, after "in the genitive case" the words "and either both singular or both plural".
(03 Castroviejo & Brummitt in Taxon 45: 567) Add a Note and an example after Art. 11.4:
"Note. In rare cases an author may need to transfer simultaneously two different species from different genera to the same third genus when they both have the same final epithet in their earliest legitimate name. Since to transfer epithets of both of these names would create homonyms, either one of the two should be transferred, and a name including a different final epithet should be adopted for the other.
"Ex. Raymond-Hamet (1929) included in the genus Sedum for the first time both Cotyledon sedoides DC. 1808 and Sempervivum sedoides Decne. 1844. He transferred the epithet of the later name, Sempervivum sedoides, to Sedum as S. sedoides (Decne.) Hamet, and published a new name, S. candolleanum Hamet, for the other. Both names are legitimate."
(04 Fensome & Skog in Taxon 46: 557) Delete Art. 3.3 and, in Art. 3.1, the clause "except for some fossil plants".
(05 Fensome & Skog in Taxon 46: 557) Add a paragraph, with examples, to Art. 11:
"11.x. Because fossil specimens may represent dispersed parts of an organism or a single stage in a life cycle, and because the temporal relationships of these fossils to other parts or stages, or to the whole organism, usually cannot be confirmed, they can be assigned to form-genera. It may also be necessary to define form-genera on the basis of different preservational modes. With respect to form-genera, the principle of priority is obligatory only between names for the same part, life cycle stage or preservational mode.
"Ex. A. The genus Sigillaria Brongn. 1822, established for bark fragments, may in part represent the same biological taxon as the cone-genera Mazocarpon M. J. Benson 1918, which represents petrifactions, or Sigillariostrobus (Schimp.) Geinitz 1873, which represents compressions. These genera are all assignable to the family Sigillariaceae and may be associated with the root-genus Stigmaria Brongn. 1822 and the leaf-genus Cyperites Lindl. & Hutton 1832, which may also be assignable to the families Lepidodendraceae and Bothrodendraceae as well as the Sigillariaceae. All these generic names can be considered correct in spite of the fact that they may, at least in part, represent the same biological taxon.
"Ex. B. The fossil cysts known under the generic name Tuberculodinium D. Wall 1967 may be retained under this generic name even though modern cysts of this type are known to be part of the life cycle of the extant genus Pyrophacus F. Stein 1883, which is the senior name if the two are considered taxonomically synonymous."
(06 Craven in Taxon 46: 809) Amend Art. 36.1 and 36.2 by replacing "Latin" with "English", so that the relevant passages will read: "... accompanied by an English description or diagnosis or by a reference to a previously and effectively published English description or diagnosis".
(07 Craven in Taxon 46: 809) Amend Art. 36.3 by deleting all reference to Latin.
(08 Craven in Taxon 46: 809) Amend Art. 36 by replacing the dates "1 January 1935", "1 January 1958", and "1 Jan 1996" with: "1 January 2000".
(09 Craven in Taxon 46: 809) Amend Art. H.9.1 by replacing "Latin" with "English" so that the relevant passage will read: "... whether in English or in any other language".
(10 Comm. Electronic Publishing in Taxon 47: 176) Authorise the General Committee to renew the mandate of the Special Committee on Electronic Publishing and Databasing, or to appoint a new such Special Committee (13 : 1).
(11 Comm. Electronic Publishing in Taxon 47: 176) Add the following words at the end of Art. 29.1 (removing the last "or") (12 : 2):
"by publication online, or by dissemination of distributable electronic media."
(12 Comm. Electronic Publishing in Taxon 47: 177) Add the following paragraph to Art. 29 (and, in Art. 31.1, after "printed matter", add "or authorised electronic publication (see 29.2)" (9 : 5):
"29.2. The General Committee may designate one or more online electronic journals as suitable vehicles for publication of nomenclatural novelties after positive evaluation by a Special Committee of their adherence to established standards of electronic document archiving, authentication and identification, including a sure method of ascertaining exact date of publication, through notice in the journal Taxon. This action would need to be ratified at the next International Botanical Congress."
(13 Comm. Electronic Publishing in Taxon 47: 177) Qualify as optional for authorised electronic publication (see 29.2) all references to pagination in the Code; and add the two following sentences at the end of Art. 32.2 and 33.2, respectively (9 : 5):
"If electronic publication of names is authorised (see Art. 29.2), then registration of such names is to be effected by sending an appropriate copy of that publication to one of the registering offices designated for this purpose by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy.
"Reference to pagination is optional for full and direct reference to place of publication for names in electronic publications authorised as acceptable for effective publication of new names."
(14 Laferrière in Taxon 47: 179) Add a paragraph after Art. 9.14 at the end of Art. 9:
"9.15. Mere citation of the place of conservation of a type or the locale at which the type was collected does not constitute effective publication. The specimen or illustration must be described in sufficient detail to distinguish it from other specimens and illustrations at the institution where it is conserved, e.g. by citation of the collectors name plus collection number, or by institutional accession number, or some other detail unique to the specimen or illustration."
(15 Laferrière in Taxon 47: 181) Add a second paragraph:
"9.16. If, in the case of a taxon at the genus level or below published on or before 31 December 1957, the description is accompanied by a published illustration but no designation of type, such published illustration is automatically considered lectotype unless original specimen material can be located to supersede it."
(16 Laferrière in Taxon 47: 181) In Art. 29.1, eliminate the words "the general public or at least to botanical institutions with," so that it reads:
"29.1. Publication is effected under this Code only by the distribution of printed matter (through sale, exchange, or gift) to libraries accessible to botanists generally."
(17 Laferrière in Taxon 47: 181) At the end of Art. 30.3, add two sentences as follows:
"Publication on or after 1 January 2001 is effected only through publication in a book or periodical devoted entirely or primarily to the publication of the results of scientific research or botanical/mycological exploration. A serial is defined as matter printed and distributed on a recurring basis, whether on a regular or irregular schedule."
(18 Reveal in Taxon 47: 183) In Art. 14.7, add "name or" between "or a" and "combination", and an example:
"Ex. 6bis. Camphora Fabr. (1759) is rejected in favour of Cinnamomum Schaeff. (1760); if Camphora and Cinnamomum are considered to be members of the same tribe, the name Cinnamomeae Endl. (1836) must be adopted, not Camphoreae Endl. (1836)."
(19 Reveal in Taxon 47: 183) Delete Art. 16.1 and replace with the following, adding two examples:
"16.1. The names of taxa above the rank of family are treated as nouns in the plural and are written with an initial capital letter. They may be either (a) automatically typified names formed by adding a termination denoting their rank to the genitive singular stem of a generic name, or (b) descriptive names ("typeless names") which are formed differently, apply to taxa with a recognised circumscription, and may be used unchanged at different ranks.
"Ex. 1. Automatically typified names above the rank of family: Magnoliophyta, Gnetophytina, Pinopsida, Marattiidae, Piperanae, Fucales, Bromeliineae.
"Ex. 2. Descriptive names above the rank of family: Angiospermae, Anthophyta, Centrospermae, Chlorophyta, Coniferae, Enantioblastae, Gymnospermae, Parietales."
(20 Reveal in Taxon 47: 184) Add the following paragraph, plus an example:
"16.1bis. For automatically typified names, the name of a subdivision or subphylum which includes the type of the adopted name of a division or phylum, the name of a subclass which includes the type of the adopted name of a class, or the name of a suborder which includes the type of the adopted name of an order, are to be based on the same type.
"Ex. 3. Pteridophyta Bergen & B. M. Davis (1906) and Pteridophytina B. Boivin (1956); Gnetopsida Engl. (1898) and Gnetidae Cronquist & al. (1966); Liliales Perleb (1826) and Liliineae Rchb. (1841)."
(21 Reveal in Taxon 47: 184) Convert Rec. 16A.4 to a rule, and add an example:
"16.1ter. When an automatically typified name above the rank of family has been published with a Latin termination not agreeing with the provisions of this Article, the termination must be changed to conform with the rule, without change of the authors name or date of publication (see Art. 32.6).
"Ex. 4. "Cactarieae" (Dumortier, 1829, from Cactus) and "Coriales" (Lindley, 1833, from Coriaria) are to be corrected to Cactales Dumort. (1829) and Coriariales Lindl. (1833) respectively."
(22 Reveal in Taxon 47: 184) Add the following paragraph, and three examples (plus current Art. 18 Ex. 7):
"16.1quater. Names of taxa above the rank of genus proposed with a non-Latin termination are not validly published.
"Ex. 5. "Acoroidées" (Kirschleger, Fl. Alsace 2: 103. 1853-Jul 1857) is not to be accepted as "Acorales Kirschl.", because it has a French rather than a Latin termination. The name Acorales was later validated by Reveal (in Phytologia 79: 72. 1996).
"Ex. 6. "Melantheen" (Kittel in Richard, Nouv. Elém. Bot., ed. 3, Germ. transl.: 727. 1840) is not to be accepted as "Melanthieae Kitt.", because it has a German rather than a Latin termination. The name Melanthieae was validated later by Grisebach (Spic. Fl. Rumel. 2: 377. 1846).
"Ex. 7. "Ginkgales" (Tieghem, Elém. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 209-210. 1898) is not to be accepted as "Ginkgoales Tiegh." because, as used by van Tieghem, the name has a French rather than a Latin termination. The name Ginkgoales was validated later by Bessey (in Trans. Amer. Microscop. Soc. 20: 95. 1910)."
(23 Reveal in Taxon 47: 184) Add the following paragraph and example:
"16.1quinquies. Automatically typified names of taxa above the rank of family based on illegitimate generic names are legitimate if the family name is conserved (see Art. 18.3).
"Ex. 8. The names Caryophyllidae Takht. (Sist. Filog. Cvetk. Rast.: 144. 1967), Caryophyllanae Takht. (Sist. Filog. Cvetk. Rast.: 144. 1967) and Caryophyllales Perleb (Lehrb. Naturgesch. Pflanzenr.: 312. 1826) are legitimate because the family Caryophyllaceae Juss. (Gen. Pl.: 299. 1789) is conserved, even though its type, Caryophyllus Mill. (1754) non L. (1753), is illegitimate."
(24 Reveal in Taxon 47: 185) Add the following paragraph and example:
"16.1sexies. Names above the rank of genus are not to be formed by adding the prefix Eu- to denote a lesser rank. If validly published, such names are to be corrected without change of the authors name or date of publication.
"Ex 9. The subfamily name "Euschizaeaceae" proposed by Presl (Suppl. Tent. Pterid.: 72. 1845) is to be corrected to Schizaeoideae C. Presl. The tribal name "Euloganieae" proposed by Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 576. 1838) is to be corrected to Loganieae Endl. The subtribal name "Eudryadeae" proposed by Torrey and Gray (Fl. N. Amer. 1: 419. 1840) is to be corrected to Dryadinae Torr. & A. Gray."
(25 Reveal in Taxon 47: 185) Convert Rec. 16A.1-3 to a rule, to precede the present Art. 16 Note 1, adding the rank superorder:
"16.1septies. An automatically typified name of a taxon above the rank of family is formed by replacing the termination -aceae of an effectively published family name with a termination appropriate to the rank. The termination for each rank is as follows:
"(b) Subdivision or subphylum: -phytina, unless it is a subdivision or subphylum of fungi (-mycotina).
"(c) Class: -opsida, unless it is a class of algae (-phyceae) or fungi (-mycetes).
"(d) Subclass: -idae, unless it is a subclass of algae (-phycidae) or fungi (-mycetidae).
"(e) Superorder: -anae.
"(f) Order: -ales.
"(g) Suborder: -ineae."
(26 Reveal in Taxon 47: 186) Delete Rec. 16B.1, and add a second sentence to Art. 16 Note 2:
"In choosing among typified names for a taxon above the rank of family, authors should generally follow the principle of priority. In choosing among competing names, authors should adopt those typified by an accepted family name."
(27 Reveal in Taxon 47: 186) Add a third sentence to Art 16 Note 2, and an example:
"However, automatically typified names of taxa above the rank of family should be selected regardless of priority so as to retain a consistency among all of the appropriate ranks (e.g., Pinophyta, Pinophytina, Pinopsida, Pinidae, Pinales, Pininae, and Pinaceae; or Magnoliophyta, Liliopsida, Commelinidae, Commelinales, and Commelinaceae).
"Ex 2bis. If the name Taccaceae Dumort. (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57, 58. 1829) is considered a synonym of Dioscoreaceae R. Br. (Prodr.: 294. 1810), the name Dioscoreales Hook. f. (in Le Maout & Decaisne, General Syst. Bot.: 1018. 1873) should be adopted rather than the earlier Taccales Dumort. (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57. 1829). However, if the name Taccaceae Dumort. is accepted for a family included within the order, either of the names Taccales or Dioscoreales may be adopted."
(28 Reveal in Taxon 47: 186) Add a paragraph after Art. 33.6, and three examples:
"33.7. An exception to Art. 33.5 is made for names of subdivisions of families in the publications of Engler (Syllabus, ed. 1-11. 1892-1936) and Engler & Prantl (Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 1. 1887-1915, ed. 2. 1924-, and Das Pflanzenreich, 1909-) published prior to 1 January 1953, wherein names ending with the terminations -oideae, -eae and -inae are to be regarded as proposed at the ranks of subfamily, tribe and subtribe respectively (Art. 19).
"Ex. 14. The name Woodsieae proposed by Diels (in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(4): 158, 159. 1899) is to be considered as published at the rank of tribe and not section as stated elsewhere (l.c.: 801). The rankless name Woodsiinae Diels (l.c.: 159) is to be considered as proposed at the rank of subtribe.
"Ex. 14bis. In Englers treatment of Saxifragaceae (in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(2a): 41-93. 1891), the names Hydrangeoideae, Eremosyneae, and Astilbinae are to be considered as proposed at the ranks of subfamily, tribe and subtribe respectively.
"Ex. 14ter. Although Warming (in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(2a): 1-22. 1891) attributes the rank of tribe to Podostemoideae and Hydrostachyoideae, these names are to be considered as proposed at the rank of subfamily. Warmings (l.c.) names, Tristicheae, Weddellineae, Marathreae, Mourereae, and Podostemeae (Eupodostemeae), stated in the index of the volume to be at the rank of section, are to be considered as proposed at the rank of tribe."
(29 Reveal in Taxon 47: 187) Add a paragraph after Art. 35.4, and an example:
"35.5. The rankless names proposed by Endlicher in Genera plantarum (1836-1840 [-1850]) and in Enchiridion botanicum (1841) above the rank of tribe or subfamily but below the rank of family are to be treated as proposed at the rank of family.
"Ex. 3. The rankless names Grubbiaceae Endl. (Gen. Pl.: xiv. 1839) and Eupomatiaceae Endl. (Ench. Bot.: 425. 1841, Eupomatieae) are validly published at the rank of family."
(30 Reveal in Taxon 47: 187) Add the following examples, two of them as "voted examples", following Art. 35.2:
"*Ex. 2bis. Jussieu (in Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 12: 497. 1827) proposed Zanthoxyleae without specifying the rank. Although he employed the termination for tribe (-eae), the name is still rankless and the correct citation is Zanthoxyleae (A. Juss.) Dumort. (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 45. 1829). The rank of tribe was first ascribed by Dumortier to the Jussieu name.
"Ex. 2ter. Bartling (Ord. Nat. Pl.: 36. 1830), in his discussion of infrafamily groups in Restionaceae, termed them "tribe"; as this is the only rank used for his otherwise rankless infrafamilial names, all infrafamilial names are assigned the rank of tribe.
"*Ex. 2quater. Lindley (Veg. Kingd.: 1846) assigned "subordo" (i.e., subfam.: Art. 19.2), "section" and "tribe" to some of his infrafamilial names; as a result, those names not assigned any rank are rankless regardless of the typography or arrangement of the names in the work, or the termination employed for each name.
"Ex. 2quinquies. In a footnote to Hieracium, Gaudin (Fl. Helv. 5: 65. 1829) applied the term "section" to an otherwise unranked infrageneric taxon. This single indication of rank applies to all infrageneric names in his seven-volume (1828-1833) work."
(31 Reveal in Taxon 47: 188) Add a paragraph at the beginning of Art. 41, and three examples:
"41.0. In order to be validly published, the name of a taxon above the rank of family must be accompanied (a) by a description or diagnosis of the taxon, (b) by a reference (direct or indirect) to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis of a taxon above the rank of genus, or (c) by a reference (direct or indirect) to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis of a genus when the author of the new name indicates that no more than one genus belongs to the taxon. Such names proposed on or after 1 January 1935 must comply with Art. 36.1.
"Ex. 0. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Class. Flow. Pl.: 94. 1981) validated Illiciales Hu ex Cronquist by a diagnosis in Latin, and Eucommiales Nemejc ex Cronquist (l.c.: 182) by a full and direct reference (Art. 32.4) to the original Latin description of the taxons only genus, Eucommia Oliver (1890).
"Ex. 0bis. The superorder Myrtanae (Bartl.) Takht. (Sist. Filog. Cvetk. Rast.: 295. 1967) is validated solely by the transfer of a name at the rank of class (Myrtopsida Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 225, 326. 1830, Myrti), which is associated with a description in Latin.
"Ex. 0ter. The ordinal name "Barbeyales" was proposed by Tahtadzjan (Sist. Filog. Cvetk. Rast.: 130. 1967) who based it on Barbeyaceae Rendle (1916), a family name validated by a description in English. As this is contrary to Art. 36.1, the correct citation is Barbeyales Reveal & Takht. (in Phytologia 74: 172. 1993) where a full and direct reference (Art. 32.4) was provided to the Latin description of Barbeya Schweinf. (1892), the only genus of the order as there defined."
(32 Reveal in Taxon 47: 190) Add a "voted example" after Art. 41.1:
"*Ex. 1bis. The family name Peganaceae (Engl.) Tiegh. ex Takht. (Sist. Magnoliof.: 178. 1987) results from a transfer, as Tahtadzjan cited a validly published and legitimate basionym (Peganoideae Engl. in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(4): 90. 1890) and indicated the new rank (fam. et stat. nov.)."
(33 Reveal in Taxon 47: 190) Add the following paragraph to Art. 49, and four examples:
"49.2. When citation of a basionym is the sole means of validating a name of a new taxon above the rank of genus, the author of the earlier, name-bearing suprageneric name (the author of the basionym) must be cited in parentheses, followed by the name of the author who effected the transfer (the author of the new name).
"Ex. 8. Reveal (in Novon 2: 235. 1992) transferred the family name Ranunculaceae Juss. (Gen. Pl.: 231. 1789) to the rank of subclass; the correct name and authorship is Ranunculidae (Juss.) Reveal.
"Ex. 9. The correct authorship of the family name based on Poa L. is Poaceae (R. Br.) Barnhart (in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895), as Barnhart only made a reference to the tribe Poeae R. Br. (in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austr. 2: 582. 1814).
"Ex. 10. Even though Candolle (Prodr. 1: 624. 1824) cited Cedrelaceae R. Br. (in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austr. 2: 595, 596. 1814) when he transferred the family name to the rank of tribe, the correct authorship of the tribe is Cedreleae DC., because Candolle provided a validating Latin diagnosis.
"Ex. 11. When Dumortier (Fl. Belg.: 59. 1827) proposed Lactucinae, he attributed the name to Cassini (in Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 20: 355. 1821) who validly published the name of a tribe, Lactuceae Cass. As Dumortier transferred the taxon from tribe to subtribe, and only provided a reference to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis (Art. 32.1), the correct citation of the name at the new rank is Lactucinae (Cass.) Dumort."
(34 Reveal in Taxon 47: 191) Add "subdivisions of families", after "families", and before "genera", to the first sentence of Art. 14.1.
(35 Zhilin & al. in Taxon 47: 195) Add a clause to Rec. 60C.1 and refer to it ["(but see Rec. 60C.1 (e))"] at the end of clauses (a) and (c):
"(e) If the personal name is a feminine surname formed by inflexion from the corresponding masculine surname, it is given the feminine termination of the latinised form of the corresponding masculine surname, from which epithets are formed as in Rec. 60C.1(a) and (c) (e.g., Taraxacum pojarkoviae for the Russian feminine surname Pojarkova (latinised as Pojarkovia from the masculine Pojarkov latinised as Pojarkovius), not T. pojarkovae; Phoenicopsis orlovskiae for the Russian feminine surname Orlovskaja (latinised as Orlovskia from the masculine Orlovski latinised as Orlovskius), not P. orlovskajae as originally spelled)."
(36 Zhilin & al. in Taxon 47: 195) Add an example to Rec. 60C.1(a), after the words "Fedtschenko (m)", as follows:
", fedtschenko-ae for Fedtschenko (f)".
(37 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 487) At the end of Art. 6.4, insert the words ", or is made available for use by the side-effect of an act of conservation", and add an example:
"Ex. 0. When Anisothecium Mitten was published in 1869, it included the previously designated type of Dicranella Müll. Hal. 1856. When Dicranella was conserved with a different, conserved type, Anisothecium became legitimate."
(38 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 488) At the end of Art. 6.4, insert the words ", or is made available for use by the side-effect of an act of rejection", delete the phrase "and names illegitimate because of inclusion of the type of a rejected name (Art. 52)" in the last sentence of the introductory matter to Appendix IV, and add a second example under Art. 6:
"Ex. 0bis. Goodyera R. Br. as published in 1813 included the type of Epipactis Ség. 1754. When Epipactis Ség. was rejected against Epipactis Zinn 1757 (nom. cons.), Goodyera became legitimate."
(39 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 488) In Art. 52.1, delete the phrase "unless conserved (Art. 14) or sanctioned (Art. 15)"; at the end of Art. 52.1, add a second reference, so that the parenthesis reads: "(but see Art. 52.3 and 52.4)."; and add a paragraph at the end of Art. 52:
"52.4. A name that was nomenclaturally superfluous when published can become legitimate by conservation (Art. 14), by sanctioning (Art. 15), or through the side-effect of an act of conservation or rejection (Art. 6.4)."
(40 Fensome & al. in Taxon 47: 489) Modify Art. 8.4 by inserting the italicised words, to read :
"8.4. The type of the name of a taxon of fossil plants of the rank of species or below is the specimen whose figure is, as of 1 January 2002, identified as being of the type and either accompanies or is cited in the valid publication of the name (see Art. 38)."
(41 Fensome & al. in Taxon 47: 489) Add a paragraph after Art. 8:
"8.4bis. In cases where, prior to 1 January 2002, the type of a name of a taxon of fossil plants of the rank of species or below is designated but not identified among the illustrations, the name is validly published. However, one of the specimens illustrated in the protologue must be chosen as lectotype. This choice will be superseded if it is later demonstrated that the author of the name clearly intended another specimen illustrated in the protologue to be the type."
(42 Veldkamp & Sosef in Taxon 47: 491) Add an example, with appropriate cross-references elsewhere, where the Editorial Committee deems best (e.g. Art. 14, 33, 45, 53):
"Ex. X. "Canarium pimela Leenh. nom. nov." (in Blumea 9: 406. 1959) was published to replace the illegitimate C. pimela K. D. König (1805). The two names are so-called isonyms (homotypic, orthographically identical names published by different authors). A later isonym has no nomenclatural status and is to be regarded as a bibliographic error of citation to be corrected (see Art. 33.3)."
(43 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 493) Add a paragraph and a note after Art. 11.2:
"11.2bis. A name that was published in the 18th or 19th century and has not been used during the 20th century should not be reintroduced on or after 1 January 2000. Such a nomen oblitum (forgotten name) may not constitute the basionym of a name.
"Note 0. For the purpose of Art. 11.2bis, only effectively published use of a name counts; in addition, the mentioning of a name in synonymy or its mere listing in a nomenclator or index does not constitute use of a name."
(44 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 493) Add a paragraph at the end of Art. 30:
"30.5. If the place in which a name was published in the 18th or 19th century has been neglected during the 20th century, this place of publication and its authorship should continue to be ignored after 1 January 2000: it should be treated as not effectively published."
(45 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 493) Add a second sentence to Art. 7.10, and an example:
"A type designation that was published before 1 January 1900 and has not been mentioned in a publication in the 20th century should be treated as not effectively published.
"Ex. 5bis. Margadant detected that Schimper in 1860 had indicated the type of c. 100 generic names of mosses (see Margadant & Geissler in Taxon 44: 613. 1995). Except for the concrete cases in which Schimpers type designations have been mentioned in print before 1 January 2000, they can be ignored."
(46 Weber in Taxon 47: 495) Add a paragraph after Art. 56.1:
"56.1bis. Certain species names that have been in use for a long time for aggregates of numerous species are to be used only in this broad sense and not for segregate species. Such names are listed as rejected at the segregate species level, in App. IV, with mention of the conditions for their use at the aggregate level."
(47 Stearn in Taxon 47: 496) Add a sentence at the end of Rec. 60C.1(b): "However, the genitive form of a feminine forename ending in a consonant is formed by adding -ae (not -iae), e.g. Aganosma edithae, Arundinaria murielae."
(48 Traverse in Taxon 47: 757) In Art. 8.3, line two, delete the words "of non-fossil plants".
(49 Traverse in Taxon 47: 757) At the end of Art. 8.4 and 8.5, add a sentence: "Note, however, that for names of plant microfossils an illustration may serve as type."
(50 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 761) In Art. 9.2, insert the words "from the original material" after "designated", and convert the text of the present footnote to Art. 9.7 into a full paragraph.
(51 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 761) In Art. 9.6, replace the words "all of the material on which the name of the taxon was based" with: "all original material1".
(52 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 761) In Art. 14.1, delete the words "nomenclature of families, genera, and species", replacing them with: "nomenclature of taxa of the rank of family and below".
(53 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 761) Add a paragraph and an example in Art. 21:
"21.4. The use of a binary combination instead of a subdivisional epithet is not admissible. Contrary to Art. 32.1(b), names so constructed are validly published but are to be altered to the proper form without change of the authors name or date of publication.
"Ex. 2. Sphagnum "b. Sph. rigida" (Lindberg in Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 19: 135. 1862) and S. sect. "Sphagna rigida" (Limpricht, Laubm. Deutschl. 1: 116. 1885) are to be cited as Sphagnum [unranked] Rigida Lindb. and S. sect. Rigida (Lindb.) Limpr., respectively."
(54 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 761) At the end of Art. 21, add a Note and an example:
"Note 3. The use of a binary combination instead of a subdivisional epithet is not admissible. In accordance with Art. 32.1(b), names so constructed are not validly published.
"Ex. 2. Sphagnum "b. Sph. rigida" (Lindberg in Öfvers. Förh. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. 19: 135. 1862) was not validly published. The name intended by this designation, and subsequently used as the basionym of the corresponding sectional name, is to be cited as Sphagnum [unranked] Rigida Schlieph. (in Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 15: 413. 1865)."
(55 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 763) Add a paragraph in Art. 35:
"35.2bis. For a name published before 1 January 1953, a section sign (§) in the place of a rank-denoting term is acceptable as indication of the rank of section, unless there is internal evidence in the publication that another rank or function was intended by the use of that sign."
(56 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 763) Add a paragraph in Art. 35:
"35.2ter. For a name published before 1 January 1953, an asterisk (*) in the place of a rank-denoting term is acceptable as indication of the rank of subspecies, unless there is internal evidence in the publication that another rank or function was intended by the use of that sign."
(57 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 764) In Art. 55.1, delete the clause ", autonyms excepted (Art. 22.1)," and add at the end: ", except when the epithet repeats that generic name unaltered, in which case the name is not validly published (see also Art. 23.4)".
(58 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 764) In Art. 55.2, delete the clause ", autonyms excepted (Art. 22.2)," and add at the end: ", except when the final epithet repeats the epithet of that specific name unaltered, in which case the name is not validly published".
(59 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 764) At the end of Art. 58.3, add the words:
"On the same conditions, a previous illegitimate generic name may be used as a subdivisional epithet or, when a new generic name is required, the epithet of a previous illegitimate subdivisional name may be adopted."
(60 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 765) Delete Rec. 58A.1.
(61 Isoviita in Taxon 47: 765) In Rec. 58A.1, replace the words "the same taxon" with: "a taxon that is considered closely related to the one for which the illegitimate name was published".
(62 Jeffrey in Taxon 47: 768) Add a sentence to the end of Art. 11.6 and an example:
"Likewise, an autonym is treated as having priority over any homotypic synonym and over any heterotypic synonym that denotes a taxon which includes the type of the name of the higher taxon, established as such by the lectotypification, neotypification or conservation of the type of the names concerned, irrespective of whether or not a name in the same rank that does not include the type of the name of the higher taxon was simultaneously or later validly published.
"Ex. 22bis. Pangalo (in Trudy Prikl. Bot. 23: 258. 1930) when describing Cucurbita mixta Pangalo distinguished two varieties, C. mixta var. cyanoperizona Pangalo and var. stenosperma Pangalo, together encompassing the entire circumscription of the species. Since neither a holotype nor any syntypes were indicated for C. mixta, both varietal names were validly published (see Art. 26.2). Merrick & Bates (in Baileya 23: 96, 101. 1989), in the absence of known type material, neotypified S. mixta by an element that can be attributed to C. mixta var. stenosperma. As long as their choice of neotype is followed, the correct name for that variety is C. mixta var. mixta, not C. mixta var. stenosperma; and when, as by Merrick & Bates, this variety is treated as a variety of C. argyrosperma Huber 1867, its correct name is C. argyrosperma var. mixta (Pangalo) ined., not C. argyrosperma var. stenosperma (Pangalo) Merrick & D. M. Bates."
(63 Moore in Taxon 47: 769) Replace the first sentence of Art. 14.1 with:
"In order to avoid disadvantageous nomenclatural changes entailed by the strict application of the rules, and especially of the principle of priority in starting from the dates given in Art. 13, this Code provides, in App. II and III, lists of names of families, genera, and species that are conserved (nomina conservanda) and must be retained as useful exceptions."
(64 Farjon in Taxon 47: 771) Add a paragraph at the end of Art. 30:
"Art. 30.5. Publication on or after 1 January 2000 of an independent publication stated to be a thesis, and presented to a university or other institute of education with the objective of obtaining a degree, is not effectively published unless it bears an International Standard Book Number (ISBN number)."
(65 Yatskievych & Wagner in Taxon 47: 773) Add a sentence at the end of Art. 46.6, "In cases where there is no internal evidence of authorship, external evidence may be used to determine authorship"; and an example:
"Ex. 22bis. Authorship of the names, such as Oenothera macrocarpa, in the work known as "Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana. 1813", a catalogue of plants available from the Fraser Brothers Nursery, in which no authorship appears anywhere in the document, should be attributed to Thomas Nuttall based on external evidence (cf. Stafleu & Cowan in Regnum Veg. 105: 785. 1981)."
(66 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 882) Replace Art. 8.1 by the following text, and add four examples (8 : 1 : 0):
"8.1. The type (holotype, lectotype or neotype) of a name of a species or infraspecific taxon is a single specimen conserved in one herbarium or institution, or an illustration. A specimen is a gathering, or part of a gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon collected at one time. A specimen may consist of a single plant, parts of one or several plants, or of multiple small plants. A specimen is usually mounted on a single herbarium sheet or in an equivalent preparation, such as a box, packet, jar or microscope slide. It may be mounted as more than one preparation, as long as the parts are clearly labelled as being part of the same specimen. Multiple preparations from a single gathering which are not clearly labelled as being part of a single specimen are duplicates, irrespective of whether the source was one plant or more than one.
"Ex. 1. The holotype of Cephaelis acanthacea Steyerm., Cuatrecasas 16752 (F), consists of a single specimen mounted on two herbarium sheets, labelled "sheet 1" and "sheet 2". Although the two sheets have separate herbarium accession numbers, F-1153741 and F-1153742 respectively, the cross-labelling indicates that a single specimen is represented. A third sheet of Cuatrecasas 16572, F-1153740, is not cross-labelled and is therefore a duplicate.
"Ex 2. The holotype specimen of Delissea eleeleensis H. St. John, Christensen 261 (BISH), is mounted as two preparations, a herbarium sheet (BISH-519675) bearing the annotation "fl. bottled" and an inflorescence preserved in alcohol in a jar labelled "Cyanea, Christensen 261". The annotation indicates that the inflorescence is part of the holotype specimen and not a duplicate, nor is it part of the isotype specimen (BISH-519676), which is not labelled as including additional material preserved in a separate preparation.
"Ex. 3. The holotype specimen of Johannesteijsmannia magnifica J. Dransf., Dransfield 862 (K), consists of a leaf mounted on five herbarium sheets, an inflorescence and infructescence in a box, and spirit material preserved in a bottle.
"Ex. 4. The holotype of Eugenia ceibensis Standl. is Yuncker & al. 8309 (F), a specimen mounted on a single herbarium sheet. A fragment was removed from the specimen subsequent to its designation as holotype and is now conserved in LL. The fragment is mounted on a herbarium sheet along with a photograph of the holotype and is labelled "fragment of type!". The fragment is no longer part of the holotype specimen, however, because it is not permanently conserved in the same herbarium as the holotype. Such fragments have the status of a duplicate, i.e. an isotype."
(67 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 883) Add the following recommendation after Rec. 8A.3 (6 : 1 : 1):
"8A.4. When a single specimen is mounted as multiple preparations this should be stated in the protologue, if the specimen is designated as a type, and the preparations appropriately labelled."
(68 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 883) Add a paragraph after Art. 8.1, and an example (6 : 3 : 0):
"8.1bis. Material collected from an individual plant at different times may be defined as a single specimen if mounted as a single preparation or as multiple preparations labelled as being part of the same specimen. When such a specimen is designated as the type of the name of a taxon, supplemental material may not be added subsequent to publication of the name.
"Ex. 1. The holotype of Echinocereus sanpedroensis Raudonat & Rischer (in Echinocereenfreund 8(4): 88-97. 1995) consists of a complete plant with roots, a detached branch, an entire flower, a flower cut in halves, and two fruits, taken from the same cultivated individual at different times and preserved, in alcohol, in a single jar."
(69 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 884) Add a paragraph after Art. 9.14 (6 : 1 : 0):
"9.14bis. On or after 1 January 2001, lectotypification or neotypification of a name of a species or infraspecific taxon is not effected unless indicated by use of the term lectotypus or neotypus, its abbreviation, or its equivalent in a modern language."
(70 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 884) Add a second paragraph after Art. 9.14 (7 : 0 : 0):
"9.14ter. On or after 1 January 2001, lectotypification or neotypification of a name of a species or infraspecific taxon is not effected unless the typification statement includes the phrase "here designated", or equivalent wording."
(71 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 884) Add a paragraph after Art. 7.11 (4 : 2 : 0):
"7.11bis. For purposes of priority (Art. 9.13 and 10.5), on or after 1 January 2001, designation of a type for a name that is not typified by original designation or indication is achieved only if the typification statement includes the phrase "here designated", or equivalent wording."
(72 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 884) Replace the last sentence of Art. 9.9 by the following (6 : 1 : 1):
"If no isotype, syntype or isosyntype (duplicate of syntype) is extant, the lectotype must be chosen from among the paratypes, if such exist. If no isotype, syntype, isosyntype, paratype or isoparatype (duplicate of paratype) is extant, the lectotype must be chosen from among the uncited specimens and cited and uncited illustrations which comprise the remaining original material, if such exist. If no original material is extant, a neotype may be selected."
(73 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 885) Delete Art. 9 Note 3 (8 : 0 : 0).
(74 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 886) Add a paragraph after Art. 9.13 (8 : 0 : 0):
"9.13bis. The author who first designates an epitype must be followed; a different epitype may be designated only if the original epitype is lost or destroyed. A lectotype or neotype supported by an epitype may be superseded in accordance with Art. 9.13 or, in the case of a neotype, Art. 9.12. If it can be shown that an epitype and the type it supports differ taxonomically and that neither Art. 9.12 nor 9.13 apply, the name may be proposed for conservation with a conserved type (Art. 14.9; see also Art. 57)."
(75 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 886) Add a Note, to follow the new Art. 9.13bis (8 : 0 : 0):
"Note 1. An epitype supports only the type to which it is linked by the typifying author. If the supported type is superseded, the epitype has no standing with respect to the replacement type."
(76 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 886) Add a paragraph after the new Art. 9.13bis (8 : 0 : 0):
"9.13ter. Designation of an epitype is not effected unless the herbarium or institution in which the epitype is conserved is specified or, if the epitype is a published illustration, a full and direct bibliographic reference is provided."
(77 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 886) Delete Art. 8.3, and add a Recommendation after Art. 8 (7 : 1 : 0):
"8A.1. When selecting a type for a name of a species or infraspecific taxon of non-fossil plants, a specimen is to be preferred to an illustration."
(78 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 887) In Rec. 8A.2, delete the words "...it is impossible to preserve a type specimen and..." (7 : 1 : 0).
(79 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 888) Delete Art. 10.5(b) and Art. 8 Ex. 5, and revise Art. 8 Ex. 6 to read (8 : 0 : 0):
"Ex. 6. Delphinium L. has been proposed for conservation with a conserved type, D. peregrinum L., which replaces D. consolida L., the type designated by Britton & Brown (Ill. Fl. N. U.S., ed 2, 2: 93. 1913). The unicarpellate D. consolida could not have been superseded as type by the tricarpellate D. peregrinum under Art. 10.5 because it is not in serious conflict with the generic protologue, which specifies "germina tria vel unum", the assignment of the genus to "Polyandria Trigyna" by Linnaeus notwithstanding."
(80 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 888) In Art. 37.3, replace "element" with "gathering or illustration", "holotype" with "type" and "specimen" with "gathering", adding two examples (7 : 1 : 0):
"37.3. For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon, citation of a single gathering or illustration is acceptable as indication of the type (but see Art. 37.4). Mere citation of a locality without concrete reference to a gathering does not however constitute indication of a type. Citation of the collectors name and/or collecting number and/or date of collection and/or reference to any other detail of the type gathering is required."
"Ex. 1. The protologue of Laurentia frontidentata E. Wimm. (in Engler, Pflanzenr. 108: 854. 1968) includes the type statement "E. Esterhuysen No. 17070! Typus-Pret., Bol." The name is validly published because a single gathering is cited, despite the citation of two specimens.
"Ex. 2. Baloghia pininsularis Guillaumin (in Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Bot. 8: 260. 1962) was published with two cited gatherings: Baumann 13813 and Baumann 13823. As the author failed to cite a single gathering, the name was not validly published. It was later validated by McPherson & Tirel (in Fl. Nouv.-Caléd. 14: 58 1987), who cited "Lectotype (désigné ici): Baumann-Bodenheim 13823 (P!; iso-, Z)."
(81 Comm. Lectotypification in Taxon 47: 889) Add three sentences at the end of Art. 37.5 (7 : 1 : 1):
"If two or more duplicate type elements are conserved in this herbarium or institution and (a) none is explicitly labelled as "type" or "holotype" or (b) more than one is labelled "type" or "holotype", this is considered an error of curatorial practice, to be corrected. One of the elements is to be labelled as holotype, the remaining elements as isotypes. Typification is ascribed to the validating author in the original publication."
(82 Brummitt in Taxon 47: 890) Add a paragraph at the end of Art. 9, and add "(but see Art. 9.15)" to Art. 9.2 and 9.6:
"9.15. If a choice of a lectotype or a neotype is made which later is found to refer to more than one specimen, this choice must be accepted (subject to Art. 9.13), but a further choice may be made from within the material first chosen with the purpose of restricting lectotypification or neotypification to a single specimen".
(83 Forman & Brummitt in Taxon 47: 891) In Art. 9.9, transfer the second sentence to the end of the paragraph, and re-word the present third to fifth sentences to read:
"In the choice of a lectotype, an isotype must be chosen if such exists. If no isotype exists, the lectotype must be chosen from among the original material. If no original material is extant, a neotype may be selected."
(84 Forman & Brummitt in Taxon 47: 891) Delete Art. 8.3.
(85 Mackinder & Nic Lughadha in Taxon 47: 893) In Art 14.1, replace "the nomenclature of families, genera and species" with "nomenclature"; in Art. 14.4, replace "A conserved name of a family or genus" with "A conserved name of any taxon in the rank of genus or a higher rank", and replace the last sentence with the following text:
"A conserved name of any taxon below the rank of genus is conserved against all names in the same rank listed as rejected, and against all combinations based on the rejected names."
(86 Comm. NCU in Taxon 47: 895) In Art. 15, add six paragraphs (those numbered below as 15.1-4, 15.9, 15.12); provide for the protection of names in current use, in addition to sanctioning, in the extant provisions; and renumber the paragraphs; so that Art. 15 will read as follows (new or modified text italicised) (9 : 3 : 0):
"15.1. In order to protect names in current use from being threatened or displaced by names that are no longer in use, and in order to eliminate uncertainties regarding their application, spelling, gender, and date and place of valid publication, published lists of names of families, genera, or species can, upon recommendation by the General Committee, be approved by an International Botanical Congress. Such lists, once approved, are enumerated in Appendix VI.
"15.2. Subject to specified restrictions and exceptions (Art. 15.3), all names on lists enumerated in Appendix VI, together with their autonyms, are protected. (a) A protected name (nomen protectum) is treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and unlisted competing synonyms; (b) it is accepted as validly published in the place and on the date cited in the list; (c) its type, when listed, is treated as if conserved under Art. 14.3; (d) its adopted spelling and, when specified, its gender is treated as if conserved under Art. 14.11. &127
"15.3. Protection can, for individual lists, be restricted with respect to the options (a) to (d) mentioned in Art. 15.2, and individual entries on a list can be excepted from protection. Such restrictions and exceptions are to be specified in Appendix VI.
"15.4. Once a list has been approved under Art. 15. 1, entries can be added to, modified in or removed from that list only by a process analogous to conservation (see Art. 14.12 and 14.14). Stated restrictions and exceptions (Art. 15.3) can be waived or modified only by the decision of an International Botanical Congress. &127
"15.5. Names sanctioned under Art. 13.1(d) are treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and competing synonyms. Such names, once sanctioned, remain sanctioned even if elsewhere in the sanctioning works the sanctioning author does not recognize them.
"15.6. An earlier homonym of a protected or sanctioned name is not made illegitimate by that protection or sanctioning but is unavailable for use; if legitimate, it may serve as a basionym of another name or combination based on the same type (see also Art. 55.3). &127
"15.7. When, for a taxon from family to genus inclusive, two or more protected or sanctioned names compete, Art. 11.3 governs the choice of the correct name (see also Art. 15.10-11).
"15.8. When, for a taxon below the rank of genus, two or more protected or sanctioned names and/or two or more names with the same final epithet and type as a protected or sanctioned name compete, Art. 11.4 governs the choice of the correct name (see also Art. 15.10-11).
"Note 1. The date of protection or sanctioning does not affect the priority (Art. 11) of a protected or sanctioned name, which is determined only on the basis of valid publication. In particular, when two or more homonyms are sanctioned only the earliest of them can be used, the later being illegitimate under Art. 53.2.
"15.9. When, under Art. 15.7-8, two or more protected names of equal priority compete, a choice between them may be entered in the appropriate list. Once approved, such listed choices supersede any other choices that may have been made under Art. 11.5.
"15.10. A name which is neither protected nor sanctioned nor has the same type and epithet as a protected or sanctioned name in the same rank may not be applied to a taxon which includes the type of a protected or sanctioned name in that rank the final epithet of which is available for the required combination (see Art. 11.4(b)).
"15.11. Conservation (Art. 14) and explicit rejection (Art. 56.1) override protection or sanctioning. Protection overrides sanctioning.
"15.12. When a list of names has been submitted for approval, and when approval has been recommended by the General Committee, names on that list may be treated as if protected, subject to stated limitations, pending the decision of a later International Botanical Congress."
(87 Comm. NCU in Taxon 47: 897) Add a Recommendation after Art. 15 (9 : 2 : 1 ):
"15A.1. When a draft
list of names has been prepared and is being studied in
advance of being submitted to an International Botanical Congress for approval, authors using these names should follow existing usage as far as possible pending the General Committee's recommendation."
(88 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 902) In Art. 32.1, last sentence, delete the clause "subject to the approval of the XVI IBC,".
(89 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 902) Add a footnote to the end of Art. 32.1:
(90 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 902) Add a Note after Art. 32.2:
"Note 0. A list of registering offices is maintained and made available by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy."
(91 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 902) Add a paragraph after Art. 32.2:
"32.2bis. The date of registration is the date on which the registration submission is received at a registering office. It does not depend on the date on which registration of a given name is made publicly known."
(92 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 903) In Art. 32.2, after "printed matter that includes the protologue(s)," add: "in duplicate".
(93 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 903) Add a sentence at the end of Art. 32.2, and an example:
"When effective publication (Art. 29-31) is not in doubt, photocopies are acceptable in place of the original printed matter.
"Ex. 1. The effective publication of journals or books issued by a recognised commercial or institutional publisher is taken for granted."
(94 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 904) Add a second Note after Art. 32.2, and a sentence at the end of Art. 46.2:
"[32.] Note 0bis. Registration is incumbent upon the authors of new names, but may also be undertaken by a third party (e.g. the publisher, or any other person) in their stead (see also Art. 46.2).
"[46.2.] Authorship is not affected by the identity of the person submitting the name for registration (see Art. 32 Note 0bis)."
(95 Borgen & al. in Taxon 47: 904) Add a Recommendation after Rec. 32F:
"32G.1. Botanists, including those responsible for recording registered names, are encouraged to effect registration of any names that fulfil all requirements for valid publication except registration."
(96 Greuter in Taxon 47: 906) Insert the following Principle ahead of the present Principle I:
"The aim of botanical nomenclature is to provide clear, efficient rules for the creation and maintenance of stable, unambiguous names for botanical taxa. All of the following principles are subordinate to this overriding goal."
(97 Chaloner & al. in Taxon 47: 909) Substitute the term "parataxa" (singular: "parataxon") for "form-taxa" (of pleomorphic fungi) and "form-genera" (of fossil plants), throughout the Code.
(98 Chaloner & al. in Taxon 47: 909) Delete Art. 3.3, 3.4, Art. 3 Note 1, both examples, and the qualifying clause in the second sentence of Art. 3.1; and add a paragraph to Art. 1, as follows:
"1.2. Taxa normally consist of whole organisms in all their life stages, irrespective of the nature of the corresponding name-bearing types. In some categories of plants, taxa that correspond only to parts of organisms or to definite stages of their life history may, for practical reasons, be recognised and named. Such taxa are termed parataxa. This Code provides, in Art. 59 and 59bis, for names of parataxa in the following categories: fossil non-algal taxa and some fungi with a pleomorphic life history."
(99 Chaloner & al. in Taxon 47: 909) Add a paragraph to Art. 11 and a whole Article to follow (or precede) Art. 59:
"11.2bis. Except in the case of parataxa (Art. 59 and 59bis), names based on any part of a plant or portion of its life history are treated as applicable to the whole organism and compete for priority with names in the same rank based on different plant parts or life history stages (see Art. 1.2).
"59bis.1. Fossil non-algal taxa are parataxa (see Art. 1.2) which for nomenclatural purposes comprise only those parts, life-history stages, or preservation states of organisms that are represented by the corresponding nomenclatural types, and whose names for purposes of priority compete only with names based on a fossil type representing that same part, life-history stage, or preservation state.
"Note 1. This provision does not prevent the assignment of fossil parataxa of a rank lower than genus to a non-fossil genus.
"Note 2. This provision does not preclude the informal use of names of fossil parataxa to refer to the theoretical concept of extinct taxa of whole plants."
(100 Chaloner & al. in Taxon 47: 910) Make the same changes and additions as by Prop. (99), but in Art. 59.0bis, instead of "Fossil non-algal taxa", write "Fossil taxa, excepting diatoms (Bacillariophyceae),"; make parallel changes in the proposed Art. 1.2 and in the Note corresponding to present Art. 11.7 (see above).
(101 Reveal in Taxon 47: 911) Add a clause to the proposed ((25) in Taxon 47: 185. 1998) Art. 16.1septies:
(102 Zijlstra & Brummitt in Taxon 47: 913) Add a sentence at the end of Art. 33.2:
"If no reference to a basionym is given, but an epithet which has previously appeared as part of a validly published name in a closely related taxonomic position is adopted in a new combination which is likely to apply to the same taxon, the combination made may be treated as validly published if, and only if, it would otherwise be validly published as the name of a new taxon".
(103 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 914) Add a Note and an example after Art. 34.1:
"Note 0. If both the name and a text fragment including a description or diagnosis of a taxon are ascribed to an author or authors different from the author or authors of a publication (authorship not partially in common, cf. Art. 46.2, and the description or diagnosis not evidently written with the intention to have it published in that article or book), but the author(s) of the publication do(es) not accept the name, it is not validly published.
"Ex. 8bis. "Excremis ramosa Willd.", cited by Roemer & Schultes (Syst. Veg. 7, ed. 15, 7: 354. 1829) as a synonym of Dianella dubia Humb. & Bonpl., was not validly published, despite the fact that in a footnote Roemer & Schultes cite Willdenows generic diagnosis of "Excremis"."
(104 Greuter in Taxon 47: 915) Reword Art. 33.3, to read:
"33.3. Errors in the citation of the basionym or replaced synonym, including incorrect author citation (Art. 46), but not omissions (Art. 33.2), do not invalidate publication of a new combination or an avowed substitute."
(105 Greuter in Taxon 47: 915) At the end of Art. 33.4, add "(but see Art. 33.4bis)"; add a paragraph after Art. 33.4, followed by the present Ex. 6-7 suitably reworded (other possible examples are mentioned in the comments below):
"33.4bis. In any of the following cases, reference to a work other than that in which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published is treated as an error to be corrected, not affecting the valid publication of a new combination or nomen novum published on or after 1 January 1953:
"(b) when the failure to cite the place of valid publication of the basionym or replaced synonym is explained by the later nomenclatural starting point for the group concerned, and in particular by the backward shift of the starting date for some fungi;
"(c) when an intended new combination would otherwise be validly published as a (legitimate or illegitimate) nomen novum; or
"(d) when an intended new combination or nomen novum would otherwise be the validly published name of a new taxon."
(106 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 920) Reword Art. 60.1 as follows (additions are in italics) (4 : 2):
"60.1. The original spelling of a name or epithet is to be retained, except for the correction of typographical or orthographical errors (Art. 60.3) and the standardizations imposed by Art. 60.5 (u/v or i/j used interchangeably), 60.6 (diacritical signs and ligatures), 60.8 (compounding forms), 60.9 (hyphens), 60.10 (apostrophes), and 60.11 (terminations; see also Art. 32.6). In all other cases, an altered spelling should not be used, unless it is conserved or a proposal for conservation is pending or being prepared (see Art. 14.11)."
(107 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 921) Delete Art. 60 Note 1 and Ex. 5 (4 : 2).
(108 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 921) Reduce Art. 60.2 to a Note, to precede Ex. 1 (5 : 1).
(109 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 921) Add two examples after Art. 60 Ex. 1 (4 : 2):
"Ex. 1bis. Cionosicys Griseb. (1860; original spelling occurring twice) is not to be altered to "Cionosicyos", as in Bentham & Hooker (Gen. Pl. 1: 826. 1867). Jeffrey (in Kew Bull. 25: 200. 1971) was correct in adopting the original spelling.
"Ex. 1ter. Stenanona Standl. (1929) and Dicranoweisia Lindb. ex Milde (1869) are not to be corrected to "Stenannona" and "Dicranoweissia" by analogy to Annona L. (1753) and Weissia Hedw. (1801), respectively."
(110 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 921) Replace Art. 60.3 by the following text (4 : 1):
"60.3. If there is a clear typographical error (i.e., evident from the name itself, without study of the protologue) a correction has always to be made. For the rest, there is a restricted liberty to correct an orthographical error. The liberty of correcting a name is to be used with reserve, especially if it concerns a generic name or if the change affects the first letter of the name or epithet."
(111 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 921) Place Art. 60 Ex. 4 after Art. 60.3, amended as follows (5 : 1):
"Ex. 4. Clear typographical error: The misspelled Indigofera "longipednuculata" Y. Y. Fang & C. Z. Zheng (1983) is to be corrected to I. longipedunculata."
(112 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 922) Add a Note after Art. 60.3, followed by Ex. 6 (second item) and a new example (4 : 2):
"Note 1bis. An epithet may not be corrected because it is inappropriate, meaningless or disagreeable (see Art. 51).
"Ex. 6bis. Mammillaria esperanzaensis Boed. (1933) may not be corrected to M. "esperanzensis", as done by Heath (in J. Mammillaria Soc. 29: 57. 1989)."
(113 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 922) Replace the diaeresis clause in Art. 60.6 by the following (4 : 1):
"The diaeresis, used in the original publication of names such as Cephaëlis and Isoëtes to indicate that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel, is not permitted;"
(114 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 923) Insert the following sentences at the beginning of Art. 60.9, delete Art. 60 Note 2, and replace Ex. 15 (4 : 1):
"60.9. In a generic name, the use of a hyphen is not permitted. If a generic name was published in two words joined by a hyphen, these words have to be united into one word.
"Ex. 15. Hyphen to be omitted: Pseudoabsidia Bainier (1903), not "Pseudo-Absidia", nor "Pseudo-absidia"; Laurocerasus Duhamel (1755), not "Lauro-Cerasus", nor "Lauro-cerasus".
(115 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 923) Replace Art. 20.3 as follows, amend Art. 20 Ex. 6, and delete Ex. 7 (4 : 1):
"20.3. The name of a genus may not consist of two words, unless they were originally joined by a hyphen. However, the hyphen must now be deleted (see Art. 60.9).
"Ex. 6. "Uva ursi", as originally published by Miller (1754), consisted of two separate words unconnected by a hyphen, and is therefore not validly published (Art. 32.1(b)). The name is correctly attributed to Duhamel (1755) who published it as "Uva-ursi", a spelling that under Art. 60.9 has to be corrected to Uvaursi."
(116 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 923) Upon acceptance of Prop. (114), insert a third and fourth sentence in Art. 60.9, and delete the Scirpus sect. Pseudoëriophorum portion in Ex. 13 (3 : 2):
"In the name of a subdivision of a genus, in a compound epithet the use of a hyphen is not permitted. If a subdivisional epithet was published in two separate words or in two words joined by a hyphen, these words have to be united into one word."
(117 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 924) In the first line of the present Art. 60.9, add the words italicised below (3 : 2):
"60.9. The use of a hyphen in a compound epithet of an (infra)specific name is treated as an error to be "
(118 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 924) Add a Note after Art. 60.9, with an example (4 : 1):
"Note 1quinquies. It is not permitted to add a hyphen in a compound epithet that originally was published as one word without a hyphen.
"Ex. 14bis. It is not permitted to add a hyphen in Isoglossa eliasbandae Brummitt (1985), named after the collector Elias Banda."
(119 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 924) In Rec. 60C.1(a), insert the phrase (4 : 1):
"gray-i for Asa Gray (m), because a terminal y functions as a [semi]vowel".
(120 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 924) In Rec. 60G.1(b), delete the words "cannae-folius (leaf of canna)," (4 : 1).
(121 Comm. Orthography in Taxon 47: 924) After Art. 23.5, add a Note and three examples (4 : 1):
"Note 1. An epithet which is a substantive in the nominative case retains its own gender and form of declension (if any); an epithet which is a substantive in the genitive case retains its own number and gender.
"Ex. 4bis. In Sapium laurocerasus Desf. ("laurocerasum"), the epithet is a substantive derived from the generic name Laurocerasus, so its termination -us must be maintained irrespective of the gender of the generic name the epithet is combined with.
"Ex. 4ter. In Masdevallia echidna Rchb. f. the epithet is the name of an animal. When the species was transferred to Poroglossum, the epithet should have remained unaltered: P. echidna.
"Ex. 4quater. Convolvulus cantabrica must not be changed to C. cantabricus since the epithet cantabrica is a pre-Linnaean generic name used as a noun in apposition."
(122 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 926) At the end of Art. 60.3, add the following sentence:
"For generic names, (one of the) original author(s) only is allowed to correct an orthographical error."
(123 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 926) After Art. 60.3, add an example:
"Ex. 6ter. Corrections to be accepted: Candolle (Apr 1821) published "Dyplotaxis"; in another publication (Mai 1821, now with the derivation of the name given) he corrected to Diplotaxis. Cassini (1816) published "Brachyscome", a spelling that he corrected to Brachycome in 1825. Mueller (1873) published Acicalyptus "fullageri" and Lomaria "fullageri", mentioning the collector Fullagar in both cases. Muellers (1875) corrections to "fullagari" have to be accepted (even though the original spellings could have involved latinisation of the personal name); Art. 60.11 prescribes a further correction, to "fullagarii"."
(124 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 926) Amend and expand Art. 60 Ex. 6 as follows:
"Ex. 6. Corrections not to be accepted: The spelling of the generic name Lespedeza Michx. (1803) is not be altered, although it commemorates Vicente Manuel de Céspedes (see Rhodora 36: 130-132, 390-392. 1934), because Michaux did not make the correction. Ancylobothrys was published by Pierre (1898); Huber (1963) corrected the spelling to "Ancylobotrys", and irrespective of whether his rationale (Greek derivation) is correct or wrong, the name must remain unaltered. Albizia was published by Durazzini (1772), and even though it is said to commemorate Albizzi, Benthams (1844) correction to "Albizzia" is not acceptable."
(125 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 927) After Art. 60.3, add the following Note and example:
"Note 1ter. If the authorship of a name includes an "author ex" citation, that author is allowed to correct just as an original author.
"Ex. 6quater. Correction to be accepted: "Gymnocalicium" Pfeiff. ex Mittler (1844) was corrected by Pfeiffer (1845) when he adopted the spelling Gymnocalycium."
(126 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 927) After Art. 60.3, add the following Note:
"Note 1quater. When noticing an orthographical variant in a later publication of the original author, one should not easily admit that it corresponds to a deliberate decision to correct the original spelling of the name."
(127 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 927) At the end of Art. 60.3, add the following three sentences:
"For epithets, (one of the) original author(s) is allowed to correct an orthographical error. In addition, if it is evident from the protologue that an error occurred in the spelling of an epithet, any author is allowed to correct this error. One should not correct if there is doubt that an error occurred."
(128 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 927) Reword and expand Art. 60 Ex. 2, add another example, and place both after Art. 60.3:
"Ex. 2. Corrections to be accepted: Globba "brachycarpa" Baker (1890) can be treated as a typographical error for G. trachycarpa (original publication: "ovary rugose", when trachys means rough; correction by Sprague in J. Bot. 59: 349. 1921). Hetaeria "alba" Ridl. (1896) can be treated as a typographical error for H. alta (original publication: "flowers yellow"; in 1907 Ridley stated alba to be a misprint; correction by Sprague in J. Bot. 59: 349. 1921). Anemone uarcissifolia L. (1753) includes a clear typographical error of the first letter of the epithet, and from the protologue with a Bauhin citation "... narcissi flore ..." it is evident that "-folia" is an error for -flora.
"Ex. 2bis. Corrections not to be accepted: Sesbania sphaerocarpa Welw. 1859 was changed by Baker (1871) to S. "sphaerosperma". Even though the type specimen appears to be labelled S. sphaerosperma, and S. sphaerocarpa thus is believed to be a writing error, the spelling may not be altered because the label does not belong to the protologue."
(129 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 928) Add a paragraph after Art. 14.11, and amend Art. 60 Ex. 3:
"14.11bis. When a species name since long is in use with an altered spelling of the epithet, even though "correction" is not permissible, a request for conservation of the spelling may be submitted to the General Committee (see Div. III) which will refer it for examination to the committee for the appropriate taxonomic group. A recommendation may then be put forward to an International Botanical Congress, and, if ratified, will become a binding decision for conservation of the altered spelling of this species name. This decision will be binding for the species name, as well as for its basionym (if there is one) and all combinations based on it or on its basionym, in any rank.
"Ex. 3. Engler (1883) supposed that the vernacular name of Gluta benghas L. (1771) was spelled "renghas", not "benghas", therefore he considered there to be an orthographical error and "corrected" the name to G. renghas. This "correction" is not permissible, and continued use of the G. renghas spelling can be justified only through conservation of this spelling."
(130 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 929) At the end of the new Art. 14.11bis, add the following sentence:
"If on or after 1 January 2000, a proposal to conserve the spelling of a name is rejected, this implies that the original spelling must be used."
(131 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 929) In Art. 60.6, replace the diaeresis clause by the following text:
"The diaeresis, indicating that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel (as in Cephaëlis, Isoëtes) is permissible, but it may be deleted;"
(132 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 929) In Art. 60.6, replace the diaeresis clause by the following text:
"The diaeresis, indicating that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel (as in Cephaëlis, Isoëtes) is permissible; it is not permitted, however, to add a diaeresis in a name in which it has not been published originally."
(133 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 930) Place the second sentence of Rec. 60C.2 in its own paragraph 60C.2bis, and add a sentence:
"Latinising modern names before a termination is added, other than in the manner prescribed in Rec. 60C.1, should be avoided (e.g. glaziovii from Glaziou, loureiri from Loureiro, backhousii from Backhouse)."
(134 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 931) Add a paragraph at the end of Art. 60, followed by a Note and an example:
"60.12. On or after 1 January 1950, making epithets derived from modern names in the manner described in Rec. 60C.2bis is forbidden. If after this date a new name is published with such an epithet, it must be corrected in conformity with Rec. 60C.1.
"Note 4. This rule only concerns names of new taxa, not new combinations of which the basionym was published before 1950.
"Ex. 21. "Glochidion melvilliorum" Airy Shaw (1971) is named after R. Melville and E. F. Melville; because the name was published after 1 January 1950, it has to be corrected to G. melvilleorum."
(135 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 931) Replace the first part of Art. 60.7, up to and including the word "preserved", by:
"60.7. When a new generic name or an epithet is derived from a latinised personal, geographic or vernacular name, it is not permitted to alter the latinisation,"
(136 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 931) In Art. 60.7, replace the phrase "except for terminations covered by Art. 60.11." with "except as ruled in Art. 60.11.", add a sentence at the end of Art. 60.11, and reword Ex. 10:
"If an epithet formed under Rec. 60C.2bis results in an ending with -erii, this must be corrected to -eri."
"Ex. 10. "Zygophyllum billardierii" was named by Candolle (1824) for J. J. H. de Labillardière (de la Billardière). When latinised, the name is Billardierius, and a substantive epithet "billardierii" could be derived from it; this termination is not acceptable under Art. 60.11 and the name is correctly spelled Z. billardieri DC."
(137 Zijlstra in Taxon 47: 932) Add a Note after Art. 60.9:
"Note 2bis. If an epithet was published with a hyphen that is permitted, it is not permitted to delete this hyphen."
(138 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 933) Add a paragraph after Art. 60.1:
"60.1bis. For a generic name, only those corrections made by the original author(s) in the same work where the name was validly published are to be accepted, unless the name was published in a journal, when corrections made in a subsequent issue, published within 3 years, must also be accepted."
(139 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 933) Add a second paragraph after Art. 60.1:
"60.1ter. For specific or infraspecific epithets, only the following corrections are to be accepted: (a) all corrections made by the original author(s) in the same work where the specific or infraspecific name was validly published, plus, if the name was published in a journal, all those corrections made in a subsequent issue, published within 3 years; (b) the correction of errors evident from the protologue; (c) the correction of errors that it can be demonstrated were the result of a copyists or printers error (e.g. upside down letters, incorrect sequence of letters)."
(140 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 933) In the second line of Art. 60.1, add "(but see Art. 60.1bis for generic names and 60.1ter for specific and infraspecific epithets)" after "errors".
(141 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 933) Delete Art. 60.3.
(142 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 934) Add the following example after Art. 60 Ex. 3:
"Solanum rohrii Wright (1894) was based on the misreading of the name "Roth" on a herbarium label. However, as this error is not evident from the protologue, the name must not be corrected to S. "rothii"."
(143 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 934) Rewrite Art. 60 Ex. 4 as follows:
"Indigofera "longipednuculata" Y. Y. Fang & C. Z. Zheng (1983) is to be corrected to I. longipedunculata since it must be assumed that a printers error has resulted in a "u" and "n" being reversed."
(144 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 934) In Art. 60 Ex. 10, second line, add "of the intended epithet, "billardierii", obtained from that latinisation," after "termination"; and in the last line replace "is correctly spelled" with "is to be spelled".
(145 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 934) Make Art. 60 Ex. 10 a "voted example".
(146 Perry & Nicolson in Taxon 47: 934) Add the following Note and two examples after Art. 60 Ex. 10:
"Note 1sexies. For the purpose of forming a specific or infraspecific epithet, an intended latinisation of a modern personal name cannot be preserved if the only change in orthography was (a) the omission of the final vowel or (b), in the case of a name ending in a silent or unaccented "e", changing that "e" to an "i".
"Ex. 10bis. Blandfordia "backhousii" was named by Gunn & Lindley (1845) after James Backhouse. The intended latinisation, "Backhousius" (in nominative), resulted from changing the silent "e" to "i", and so Gunn and Lindleys latinization cannot be preserved and the name is correctly spelled B. backhousei Gunn & Lindley.
"Ex. 10ter. Briquet (1894) named Hyptis glaziovii to honour A. F. E. Glaziou. Briquets intentional latinization, "Glaziovius" (in nominative), resulted from changing "u" to "v", and so Briquets spelling H. glaziovii is to be preserved and must not be altered to H. "glazioui"."
(147 Perry in Taxon 47: 935) Add a Note after Art. 23.5:
"Note 1. Words ending in -cola are either substantives or one-ending adjectives. Treating them as three-ending adjectives is contrary to classical Latin and so the use of -colus or -colum in an adjectival epithet must be changed to -cola."
(148 Perry in Taxon 47: 935) In Art. 23 Ex. 4, second line, delete "the specific epithet being a Latin substantive" after "("amnicolus"),".
(149 Perry in Taxon 47: 935) Add a new paragraph after Art. 23 Ex. 4:
"23.5bis. A classical noun or a word ending in a classical noun when adopted as a specific epithet is sometimes used as an adjective. If it cannot be determined from first usage whether a noun or an adjective was intended, it must be treated as a noun in apposition unless a compound word is involved, when an adjective must be assumed."
(150 Greuter in Taxon 47: 937) In Art. 6.5, after "The correct name of a taxon", insert the words "at the rank of family or below".
(151 Greuter in Taxon 47: 937) In Art. 20.1, insert "nominative" before "singular"; in Art. 21.2, before "or a plural adjective", insert "or a substantive in the genitive plural", adding at the end: ", but not a substantive in the genitive singular"; and add a clause to Art. 21 Ex. 1: "Pleione subg. Scopulorum;".
(152 Greuter in Taxon 47: 938) Add a paragraph after Art. 22.4, and in Art. 55.1 replace the words "Autonyms excepted (Art. 22.1)" with a cross-reference to the new paragraph:
"22.4bis. The epithet in the name of a subdivision of a genus may not repeat the generic name unaltered if the latter is illegitimate."
(153 Greuter in Taxon 47: 938) Add a paragraph at the end of Art. 27, and in Art. 55.2 replace the words "Autonyms excepted (Art. 26.1)" with a cross-reference to the new paragraph:
"27.2. The epithet in the name of an infraspecific taxon may not repeat unchanged the epithet of the species name if the latter name is illegitimate."
(154 Greuter in Taxon 47: 938) Add a second sentence to Art. 30.1: "Indelible autograph produced later is not effectively published."
(155 Greuter in Taxon 47: 938) Delete Rec. 32C.
(156 Greuter in Taxon 47: 939) Replace Rec. 46A.2-3 by the following (and add examples as by the present parenthetical inserts):
"46A.2. The abbreviation should be long enough to be distinctive, and should normally end with a consonant that, in the full name, precedes a vowel. One of the last characteristic consonants of the name may be added when this is customary."
(157 Greuter in Taxon 47: 939) In Rec. 50E.1, replace "If a generic or specific name" by "If a name of a family, genus or species", and add reference to App. II.
(158 Greuter in Taxon 47: 939) In Art. 52.2, after clause (b), add: "or (c) of the previously conserved type under Art. 14.9", re-lettering the following clauses.
(159 Greuter in Taxon 47: 939) In Art. 53.5, last line, instead of "the same epithet". write: "the same or a confusingly similar epithet"; and delete reference to infraspecific names in Art. 53.3.
(160 Greuter in Taxon 47: 940) Replace the whole of Art. 58 with a single paragraph, transferring Ex. 1 to Art. 23.4 but maintaining Ex. 2-3.
"58.1. The epithet in an illegitimate name may if available be used in a different combination, at the same or a different rank, if no other epithet is available from a name that has priority at that rank. The resulting name is then treated as new, either as a nomen novum with the same type as the illegitimate name(see also Art. 7.5 and Art. 33 Note 2), or as the name of a new taxon with a different type. Its priority does not date back to the publication of the illegitimate name."
(161 Greuter in Taxon 47: 940) Delete Rec. 58A.
(162 Greuter in Taxon 47: 940) In Art. H.12.1, replace the words "nothotaxa of specific or infraspecific rank" by "nothospecies", and reword Art. H.11.2 as follows:
"H.11.2. The final epithet in the name of an infraspecific nothotaxon, of which the postulated or known parental taxa are assigned to different species, may be placed subordinate to the name of a nothospecies (but see Rec. H.10B)."
(163 Trehane in Taxon 47: 941) In Prin. II, insert "generally" before "determined".
(164 Trehane in Taxon 47: 941) Add a sentence at the end of Art. 23.1: "The specific epithet is written with a small initial letter.", and delete Rec. 60F.
(165 Trehane in Taxon 47: 941) Amend Art. 46.1 to read:
"46.1. In publications, particularly those dealing with taxonomy and nomenclature, it may be desirable, even when no bibliographic reference to the protologue is made, to cite the name of the author(s) who validly published the name concerned. In so doing, the following rules are to be followed."
(166 Trehane in Taxon 47: 941) In Art. 60.6, delete the first part of the third sentence, to the semi-colon.
(167 Trehane in Taxon 47: 942) Delete Art. 60.7, move Art. 60 Ex. 9 to under Art. 60.1, and delete Art. 60 Ex. 10.
(168 Trehane in Taxon 47: 942) Delete the first sentence of Rec. 60C.2, and add a paragraph after Art. 60.6.
"60.bis. Epithets formed from personal names which either commemorate ancient Greek or Roman persons (whether actual or mythical), or are latinised pseudonyms, are given their appropriate Latin genitive to form substantive epithets."
(169 Trehane in Taxon 47: 942) Delete Art. 60 Note 2 and Ex. 15, and reword Art. 60.9 as follows:
"60.9. The use of a hyphen in a name of a genus or in an epithet is treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the hyphen, except in a specific or infraspecific epithet formed of words that usually stand independently, or in which the letters before and after the hyphen are the same, when the hyphen is to be used."
(170 Trehane in Taxon 47: 943) In Rec. 60B.1, convert clause (d) into a Note and add reference to Art. 60.2 after the word "spelling".
(171 Trehane in Taxon 47: 943) In Rec. 60C.3, replace "original" with "usual".
(172 Trehane in Taxon 47: 943) Delete Rec. 60E.
(173 Trehane in Taxon 47: 943) In Rec. 60H, insert "to be" before "spelled", replace "host plant" with "associated organism", and make this a provision placed in Art. 60.
(174 Trehane in Taxon 47: 943) In Rec. 60I.1. delete the word "their".
(175 Trehane in Taxon 47: 946) Replace the beginning of Preamble 8, up to the semicolon, with:
"8. The International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants is prepared under the authority of the International Commission for the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants and deals with the use and formation of names for special categories in agricultural, forestry and horticultural plant nomenclature."
(176 Trehane in Taxon 47: 947) Delete the end of Preamble 8, after the semicolon, as well as Art. 3.2, 4.4, 11.8, 20 Note 1, Rec. 20A.1(j), and the whole of App. I.
(177 Trehane in Taxon 47: 947) In Art. 4 Note 2, replace "variants of species in cultivation" with "categories of plants used in agriculture, forestry and horticulture".
(178 Trehane in Taxon 47: 947) Add a paragraph and a Note after Art. 10.4:
"10.4bis. The type of a name of a genus or subdivision of a genus which, on its publication, is postulated to be a graft chimaera or hybrid between different genera or subdivisions of a genus may be a designated standard specimen or illustration of a cultivar (see Note 2bis), provided that no named species was simultaneously included in that genus or subdivision of a genus.
"Note 2bis. The nomenclature of cultivars is governed by the provisions of the International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants (see Pre. 8); under the provisions of that Code, cultivars do not have nomenclatural types but may have "standard specimens" which, when designated, are considered to be equivalent to nomenclatural types for the purposes of Art. 10.4bis."
(179 Trehane in Taxon 47: 947) Add paragraphs at the end of Art. 20 and Art. 43, and after Art. 42.2; and at the end of Art. 43.1, add "(but see Art. 43.2)".
"20.5. Designations for hybrid taxa in supraspecific ranks that are condensed formulae, or have a condensed formula as their epithet, and are determined by a statement of parentage under previous editions of this Code, are not considered as names under this Code unless all conditions for their valid publication are fulfilled (but see Art. 42.2bis & 43.2).
"42.2bis. Prior to 1 January 2001, a statement of parental taxa for a name which is a condensed formula (Art. 20.5) is acceptable in place of a description or diagnosis.
"43.2. However, names of species in which the epithet is combined with a condensed formula (Art. 20.5) instead of a generic name are validly published under this Code, so long as all other conditions for valid publication are fulfilled."
(180 Trehane in Taxon 47: 947) Transfer Art. 27 to the end of Art. 26, to be followed by a new Section 5bis "Designation and names of hybrids and graft chimaeras", with an additional Article:
"27.1. A hybrid between named taxa may be indicated by placing the multiplication sign "´ " between the names of the taxa; the whole expression is termed a hybrid formula.
"27.2. Hybrids between representatives of two or more named taxa of generic or lower rank (and arising either in nature or cultivation) may receive a name. The hybrid nature of a such a taxon may be indicated by placing the multiplication sign "´ " in front of the name of a hybrid genus or, in the case of a hybrid of lower rank, in front of the final epithet.
"27.3. Graft chimaeras between representatives of two or more named genera may receive a name. The graft-chimaeral nature of such a taxon may be indicated by placing the addition sign "+ " against the initial letter of the generic name.
"Note 1. Designations for certain categories of plants used in agriculture, forestry and horticulture (e.g., cultivars and cultivar-groups) are not covered by this Code, but fall under the provisions of the International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants (see Pre. 8).
"27.4. For the purposes of homonymy and synonymy, the multiplication or addition sign is disregarded."
(181 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) Add a Recommendation after Art. 27:
"27A.1. The names of taxa in a hybrid formula should be placed in alphabetical order, unless a different rationale is explicitly stated."
(182 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) Add a second Recommendation after Art. 27:
"27B.1. The multiplication sign denoting hybridity in the name of a taxon should be placed against the initial letter of the epithet or, in hybrid genera, of the name. However, if the symbol "´ " is not available and the letter "x" is used instead, a single space may be left between it and the epithet of the name if this helps avoid ambiguity. The letter "x" should be in lower case."
(183 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) Add a third Recommendation after Art.. 27:
"27C.1. When contemplating the publication of new names for hybrids between taxa, authors should carefully consider whether they are really needed, bearing in mind that hybrid formulae (Art. 27.1), although more cumbersome, are more informative."
(184 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) Delete Art. 28.2.
(185 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) In Art. 28 Note 1, delete the last sentence.
(186 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) In Art. 28 Note 2, delete "1980" in the first sentence and the whole second sentence.
(187 Trehane in Taxon 47: 948) Move Art H.12.2 to Art. 35, to follow Art. 35.3; and in Art. 50.1 replace "(Art. H.10.2)" with "(Art. 27.2)".
(188 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 949) Throughout the Code, substitute "published" for "effectively published".
(189 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 949) Throughout the Code, substitute "precedence" or "date", as appropriate, for "priority", so as to restrict the use of "priority" to precedence by date.
(190 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "established" or "establishment" for "validly published" or "valid publication", respectively.
(191 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "acceptable" for "legitimate", and "unacceptable" for "illegitimate".
(192 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "accepted" for "correct" where it relates to the nomenclatural status of a name.
(193 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "name-bearing type" for "nomenclatural type".
(194 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "nominal taxon" for "name and type".
(195 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "homotypic" for "nomenclatural" in relation to the nomenclatural status of synonyms.
(196 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "heterotypic" for "taxonomic" in relation to the nomenclatural status of synonyms.
(197 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "replacement name" for "avowed substitute".
(198 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) Throughout the Code, substitute "suppressed" for "explicitly rejected".
(199 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) In Rec. 16A.3 (c), insert ", but not -viridae" after "-idae".
(200 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) In Art. 17.1, insert "(but not -virales)" after "-ales".
(201 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) At the end of Art 19.3, add ", but not -virinae" after "-inae".
(202 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 950) At the end of Art. 20.1, add ", but may not end in -virus" after "manner".
(203 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 951) In Art. 46.1, after "concerned", add "and the date of valid publication".
(204 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 951) At the end of Art. 46 Note 1, insert: ", at least by its date".
(205 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 951) Add a recommendation after Rec. 46D:
"46E.1. Authors and editors of botanical publications are urged to restrict the use of author citations and dates to works in which authorship and date have been critically assessed, such as formal taxonomic and nomenclatural works".
(206 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 951) Add a clause after Art. 54.1(b), as follows:
(207 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 951) In Prin. I, insert "(but see Art. 54.1 (c)" after "bacteriological nomenclature".
(208 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 951) Add a Recommendation after Art. 54:
"54A.1 Authors naming new taxa should, as far as is practicable, avoid using such names as already exist for zoological and bacteriological groups."
(209 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 952) In Art. 45.5, delete the middle portion, from "other than algae" in line 2 to "belonging to the algae" in line 4; and add a paragraph after Art. 11.7 (inserting cross-references to it wherever appropriate):
"11.7bis. The correct name under this Code for an ambiregnal taxon (a taxon that is sometimes treated under the bacteriological or zoological Code, depending on taxonomic opinion or an authors preference) is the earliest name which is acceptable under any Code and is not a later homonym of a name established under another Code".
(210 Hawksworth in Taxon 47: 952) Add a clause at the end of Div. III.2:
"(9) Committee on Harmonisation, charged with exploring with other mandated bodies possibilities for improving harmonisation between the different Codes and providing an interface with the International Committee on Bionomenclature".
(211 Gams & al. in Taxon 47: 954) Delete Art. 8 Ex. 1, add a qualifying clause at the end of Art. 8.2, and a Note after Art. 37.1.
[8.2.] ", except in certain zoosporic or zygomycetous fungi (exclusive of Endogonales and Glomales) and ascomycetous or basidiomycetous yeasts whose cultures, if preserved in a metabolically inactive state (lyophilisation or deep-freezing), are acceptable as types.
"Note 0. Metabolically inactive living material (lyophilised or deep-frozen cultures) of fungi in the groups specified in Art. 8.2 are acceptable as types for the purpose of this Article (see also Rec. 8B.1). In cases of conflict, the identity of any preserved dead original specimen of the same strain prevails over that of a type culture."
(212 Gams & al. in Taxon 47: 954) After Art. 9.6, insert a paragraph:
"9.6bis. A type culture of a fungus of one of the groups specified Art. 8.2 is a culture preserved in a metabolically inactive form (lyophilised or deep-frozen) that fixes the identity of its name in cases where dried or otherwise dead material does not allow a satisfactory identification (see also Rec. 8B.1)."
(213 Kuyper & al. in Taxon 47: 955) Reword Rec. 50E.2, add a phrase at the end of Rec. 50E Ex. 2, and a further example:
"50E.2. If a name has been adopted by Fries or Persoon, and thereby sanctioned (see Art. 13.1(d)) and endowed with a privileged typification status (see Art. 7.8), ": Fr." or ": Pers." should be added in a full citation. The same convention should be used for the basionym of the sanctioned name, if it has one, and for all combinations based on either.
[Ex. 2.] ", and a subsequent combination based on it as Chalciporus piperatus (Bull. : Fr.) Bataille."
"Ex. 3. Agaricus sarcocephalus Fr. 1815 : Fr. was sanctioned as Agaricus compactus [unranked] sarcocephalus (Fr. : Fr.) Fr. 1821; a subsequent combination based on it may be cited as Psathyrella sarcocephala (Fr. : Fr.) Singer."
(214 Jørgensen & Gams in Taxon 47: 956) Add a sentence at the end of Art. 59.5:
"This should, however, be avoided when the teleomorphic connection is firmly established and there is no practical need for separate names (e.g. in rust fungi and members of the Trichocomaceae)."
(215 Jørgensen & Gams in Taxon 47: 956) Reword Art. 59.4 as follows:
"59.4. Irrespective of priority, names with a teleomorphic type take precedence over names with an anamorphic type when both types are judged to belong to the same holomorphic taxon."